The protesters called on police to allow them to leave the city and return to their home villages, said senior Mumbai police official Vijaylakshmi Hiremath.
The protest broke out hours after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that India's nationwide lockdown would be extended to May 3.
"We had to use batons to control the crowd. No one was injured," said Dattaray Bhargude, senior police official to CNN.
In an appeal to migrant workers Tuesday, the chief minister of Maharashtra, Uddhav Thackeray said, “You have come from other states and stay here with us. There is a problem and a challenge and we will face this challenge together… You have come here, and you are living in this state and we will take complete care of you. There is no need for you to worry.”
Thackeray also said that the protest occurred because the workers were under the impression that they would be able travel once the initial 21-day lockdown period was up on Tuesday, had gathered at the station to board trains.
"Railways have not started any ticket booking at railway stations, but the online bookings were on for trains operational post the initial 21-day lockdown. Due to the extension in the lockdown the cancellations have been initiated on Tuesday for the extended lockdown period till May 3," said Ravindra Bhakar, a spokesperson for Western Indian Railways.
Tuesday’s protest mimicked a similar one which took place last week in the western state of Gujarat. More than 80 people were arrested after protesters threw stones as the police asked them to go back to their homes.
Migrant workers across India have been restricted from heading back to their homes since the lockdown was announced last month. State governments have set up shelter homes to house the workers and have been working with NGOs to provide meals.
To date, India has recorded a total of 11,439 confirmed cases, including 377 deaths.